Sumatra is huge island with 1800 km & 450 square kilometers width, stretching from the Indian ocean in the North to the straits of Sunda in the South. It is a land of virgin tropical rain forests, volcanoes, high plateaus, waterfalls, lakes, peaceful white sandy beaches, terraced rice fields & endless plantations. The people of the island are hospitable & warm & can be divided in to many groups of ethnic such as Acehnese, Bataks, Minangkabau, Malays, Nias, etc. Each groups has their owns dialects, religious beliefs, traditional arts, customes & cultures. The diversity of arts & cultures literary make this island a Garden of Eden for social & historical scientists & cultural seekers. From the Acehnese in the North, the Bataks people around Lake Toba, the unique matriarchal social system of the Minangkabau & the Malays people that mostly at the coasts.
Travelling in North Sumatera will bring you to these beautiful & interesting places:
Medan means battlefield in Indonesian vocabulary, referred to the site of battlefield between the Aceh Kingdom & the Deli Kingdom. Once Medan was part of the Deli Sultanate but now is the capital city in Medan are the Mesjid Raya (Grand Mosque), the Maimoon palace, the prewar architecture buildings in the down town, crocodile farm, etc.
The Sumatran Orangutans Rehabilitation Center.
Also known as Bukit Lawang, lies in South of Gunung Leuser national park. Here young orangutans are taught self preservation skills by human teachers for a return to their original habitat. The center is a 45 minute walk from Bukit Lawang at the end of a river trail. A canoe on a cable is provided for crossing the river. Besides of to observe the Sumatran orangutans, Bahorok is place for the adventurous.
About The Orangutans
One of the great apes, usually vegetarian & tailes & equivalent to the African gorilla & Chimpanzee. Their name, in Indonesia, means “Man of the forest”. Orangutans are often loners & do not travel in large families. Another orangutans rehabilitation center is in Tanjung Puting National Park Central kalimantan serves the quite distinct Bornean subspecies of this endangered ape.
A lovely tourist town that located in the karo highlands known for various kinds of flowers, vegetables & fruits most famous of which is the “Marquisa” passion fruit. It is 66 km southwest of Medan & surrounds by two volcanoes: Mt. Sibayak & Mt. Sinabung.
Lake Toba & Parapat
The centerpiece of Sumatra is the gigantic crater Lake Toba. With 80 km length, 40 km width & 450m deep, Lake Toba is the largest lake in Southeast Asia. It was a caldera of giant volcano that collapsed around 100.000 years ago. Now Lake Toba has become one of the major tourist destinations in Indonesia, offers its natural beauty, cool climate & rich culture of the Batak people. On shore of Lake Toba there is Parapat, the embarkation point for ferries & boat to Samosir island. It is a busy resort mostly by tourism.
Located right in the middle of Lake Toba, Samosir island covers an area of 630 square-km. This island is home of the fiercest but kind hearted Toba Bataks. Visiting the village of Tomok, Tuk-tuk, Simanindo, Ambarita are recommended for traditional Batak Toba houses & local dances.
Situated at the west coast of the island of Sumatra, is home of the Minangkabau, one of a few the world’s last ethnic groups to retain a matriachal social system. Every Minangkabau belongs to his/her mother’s clan. They are versatile & intelligent people & lead their community & family life based on matriachal system which gathers around mosques & traditional adat houses. The women own property & the men choose to wander. Travelling is considered a mark of success & therefore many West Sumatrans are found in other parts of the Indonesia.
Originally was a port for traders of gold, spices, timber & products from the hinterland valley of the Minangkabau region. It has several houses built in traditional architecture, including the Padang Museum which houses objects of cultural & historical interest. The Bungus bay bas white sandy beach & it is good for swimming, boating or just watching the fishing boats going out to sea in the afternoon.
Bukittinggi is a two-hours drive through beautiful countryside of the Anai valley to the Agam Plateau. It is one of the lovely, friendly, most relaxed town in all Sumatra. Located 930 metres above sea level, Bukittinggi formerly named Fort De Cock by the Dutch has a cool climate & is surrounded by three volcanoes: Tandikat, Singgalang & Merapi. The landmark is the town’s clock tower topped with a hornshaped roof & called Jam Gadang, build by the Dutch in 1827, overlooks the market square & magnificent view of the city. In the outskirts of the town is the Ngarai Sianok, a canyon separating Bukittinggi from Kota Gadang, 12 km away overland. Kota Gadang is renowned for its fine silver filigree & hand embroidery. Also worth visiting is the colorful market & the Museum which is a Rumah Gadang in the 19th century.
Lies at the outskirt of Bukittinggi, it is a steep-canyon of about 100-150 metres high, very colorful & is surrounded by a green valley with a winding river at its bottom. The beauty of this panoramic landscape is hard to describe as if no words can precisely express this geological wonder.
Batusangkar & Pagaruyung Palace
Batusangkar has been know as Minangkabau Kingdom at old period that named as Pagaruyung palace. The palace reflects the lavish royal style of architecture of the Minangkabau which is much visited by tourist. The kingdom at the beginning of its history was ruled by a queen, named Bundo Kanduang. Near Batusangkar is where some archaeological vestiges, such as the Written Stone, the Stabbed Stone & some other relics can be found.
It is said that this little village is the oldest village in West Sumatra. It is situated on the slopes of Mt.Merapi & it is still reflects the pure social structure of the Minangkabau conception of a village. A mosque, a council house & adat house with rice barns form the nucleus of the village
The surroundings of the Anai Valley are magnificent. The dense tropical forest all around is most impressive & is a nature reserve. Below runs the river Anai with its crystal clear water. Just on the side of the road is a 40 meter high waterfall.
A winding road with 44 sharp turn descends to Lake Maninjau, around 36 km from Bukittinggi. This mysterious & calm lake offers breathtaking views of its surrounding, ring of mountains & terraced rice fields. The lake retains its natural wonder as giants bats float across it every twilight & the echoing calls of birds & monkey can be heard from the jungle.
The Harau Canyon is a granite walls surrounds a lovely countryside, arround 15 km from Payakumbuh, It is a nature & wildlife reserve where tapirs, siamangs, boars, wild goats, butterflies, etc.
The village of Pandai Siket is around 10 km from Bukittinggi & famous for its hand weaving “Songket” & carving industry. Songket is a traditional Minangkabau textile for the colorful customary customes wear for all traditional ceremonies. Up today, the “Songket” is still traditional woven, using gold manual looms & generally done by women or girls
ACEH (NANGROE ACEH DARUSSALAM)
Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam (NAD) is an Indonesian province located on the western tip of Sumatra Island. Actually, this area has many tourist objects, ranging coastal attractions such as beach-Nga Lhok which beautifully with exquisite white sandy hills of the surrounding landscape, presenting the major tourist sites that are not less than Bali, to the mountain attractions. NAD has a freshwater lake in the mountains of the sea at an altitude of 1100 m above sea level. The length of the lake reaches 26 km with a width of 5 km, and depth 50 m. Laut Tawar Lake is located in the Takengon, Central Aceh. You also can visit the Hot Springs Pool is located at Simpang Balik, approximately 14 km from Takengon. This pond is often visited by local and foreign wisatwan, local residents themselves believe that the pool of hot water can cure some types of skin diseases. To get to the location can use private vehicles or could use car rental services in Aceh.
In addition to natural attractions, there are also historical attractions such as Tjut Meutia Traditional House, a national hero woman from Aceh. The traditional house is located in the district Matangkuli, Pirak village. Sightseeing is another history Tsunami Museum (the museum built to commemorate the tragedy of the storm Tsunami in December 2004), Meseum Aceh, bell Cakra Donya (which was a gift from the king granting China in 1414 AD), Taman Sari Gunongan (one legacy Iskandar Muda Ottoman empire used as a tool / recreational Royal family members at that time. Gunongan is a symbol of the mountain which is part of the Acehnese Sultanate Palace Park).
And for those of you who have a high adrenaline, you can also enjoy the tourist Waterfall 7 (Seven) Level, which is a symbol of the sky level 7. Besides, you can also enjoy rafting arum, with river flow rates can spur your adrenaline! If you want to do rental car can use a rental car to get to Aceh this place.
For the Muslims who want to travel the Spiritual, you can visit Baiturrahman Grand Mosque, which is one of the most magnificent mosque in Southeast Asia. Not only this mosque which is a historic mosque in Aceh, there are many other historic mosques. Also you can visit the Tomb Syah Kuala (Syah Kuala Big is Aceh Ulama At Century 17, whose real name is Syech Abdurrauf bin Ali Al Fansuri As-Singkili). He is very persistent in spreading the religion of Islam and run the Shari’a in Aceh so that the soil is believed to be the Fair Malikul Kadhi level with the Supreme Court in the Kingdom of Aceh Darussalam.
Aceh is rich of events, attraction and unique cultures that it will fascinate anyone. Aceh is also rich in natural beauty, waves and sea garden, which is suitable for diving. Some of most beautiful Aceh tourism and historical sites and beaches have been damaged by the massive earthquake and Dec ’04 Tsunami. The name of Aceh Darussalam is come from Aceh language means the welfare and peace Aceh country. Aceh is located in the Northwestern of Sumatra Island with the area of approximately 57,365.57 km square or 12.26 % of size of Sumatra Island. It consists of 119 islands, 73 major rivers and 2 lakes.
Aceh is surrounded by:
North side: Malacca Strait
East Side: North Sumatra Province
South and the west Side: Indian Ocean.
The capital of Aceh is Banda Aceh. The Special Province of Aceh with its area of 57, 365.57 square kilometers covering 1.17 per cent of Indonesia is situated at the northern tip of Sumatra Island, between latitudes 2<N-6°N and longitudes 95°E-98°E.
In the central part of this province runs Bukit Barisan Mountain ranges with Tangse, Gayo, and Alas uplands. Also, there are several mountains found in the region such as Pasee Mountain with its peak, Geureudong” (2,595 m), and Peut Sagoe (2,708 m), Gayo Mountain range with its peak Burni Telong (2,566 m), and Ucap Malu Mountain range (3,187 m). Other mountains include: Alas mountain with its peak Abong-abong (3,015 m) Leuser (3,466 m), Aceh” Raya Mountain range with its peak Seulawah Agam, (1,762 m) and Seulawah Inong Mountain (868 m).
On the west and south coasts, there are both large and small islands, some of which are inhabited and others, which are uninhabited. These islands are Weh Island, Breuh Island, Nasi Island, Simeulue Island and Tuangke Island (Banyak Island).
Weather & Climate
The dry season in Aceh usually lasts from March through August. The rainy season starts in September to last until February.
The average annual rainfall ranges from 2,000 mm to 3,000 mm, with temperatures ranging from 25 to 30° Celsius. In the highlands,the average temperature is 200 Celsius. The amount of rainfall varies between all parts of Aceh. The western and southern coasts have more rainfall than the other parts. The weather along the coastal areas is usually warm. In the mountains tend to be cooler. The humidity varies from 65 to 75 percent. The wind from the west begins in June through November while the wind from the east begins in December through May.
North Sumatra is one of Indonesia’s last surfing frontiers. “North Sumatra” consists of 5 islands or island groups: Hinako Islands, Nias, Telos and 2 other obscure island groups to the north. North Sumatra receives similar swell to Mentawais and enjoys its peak swell season from May to September. Despite Indonesia’s reputation for hollow lefts, in North Sumatra right-handers are slightly more prevalent. While Lagundri Bay at Nias has been surfed for decades, it is the more obscure rights like Bawa (a Sunset-like right bowl that holds up to 15 feet) and Treasure Island (a long, hollow, mechanical right peeling for 200 meters) that have attracted the attention of late. Throw a mix of hollow and bowl lefthanders into the picture like Asu, Afulu, the Machine, and many more obscure rights and lefts.
In contrast to the small island of Bali, North Sumatra province is large with one of the biggest lakes in the world, Toba Lake, at its navel. The continuous mountain of Bukit Barisan, which extends from Aceh at the tip of Sumatra island to Lampung at the bottom of the island, guards the province on the west side, providing home for thick, tropical jungles and lush vegetations. As you go down the western mountains towards the beaches of the east, mountain streams, strong rivers, and gorgeous waterfalls will accompany you.
Along the length of this province crosses Bukit Barisan Mountains with peaks of numerous volcanoes. The land has thick virgin forests, lush vegetation, rice fields, mountain streams, rivers, waterfalls and sandy beaches. It has a rich flora and fauna. An abundance of birds, butterflies, buffaloes, deer, mouse deer, orangutans and many other export commodities make North Sumatra one of the richest provinces in Indonesia, as it produces more than 30 % of Indonesia’s exports. The province offers the visitors, especially nature lovers, beautiful tropical panoramas, terraced rice fields, blue mountains, jungle covered hills, white sandy beaches, music, dance and folk arts.
Relative to Bali, North Sumatra has very heterogeneous ethnic groups, and thus, cultures. The people of the eastern coasts, also known as the Malays (Melayu) have markedly different traditions and culture from Batak highlanders who live around Toba Lake and Samosir Island. Further south, the Mandailings and Angkolas, and Nias Island, have yet more flavors of traditions and culture. Besides them, there are several ethnic groups who live in Medan and other towns of North Sumatra. Its largest groups are Chinese and Indian, who being naturalized Indonesian citizens. Other Indonesian tribes like Acehnese, Minangkabau, Javanese, etc also live in many parts here. Each of the mentioned tribes as well as the ethnic groups has its own dialect, religion, beliefs, traditional customs, etc. Arts and cultures make this region, a paradise for social scientists. Among the ancient Indonesian cultures, which can be seen at Samosir Island, are the centuries old tombs of Batak Toba kings and a stone-table with its benches, where the Siallagan chiefs formerly held meetings.
North Sumatra province has 70,787 sq km width. Geographically, it is located between 1o and 4o North Latitude and between 98o and 100o East Longitude. The area is Borders with:
- North side: the special territory of Aceh
- South side: West Sumatra Province and Riau Province
- West side: Indian Ocean
- East side: Malacca Strait
North Sumatra Province is divided among 11 regencies, 6 municipals, and 3 administrative towns with Medan as its capital city.
Composed of coastal areas, lowlands, plateaus, and mountains.
Humidity: Varies between 79% and 96%.
As one of Indonesia islands, North Sumatra has rainfall of 1,100-3,400 mm per year. It temperature is range between 18 C and 34 C.
Historically, North Sumatra Province has a migration flow of population either from other provinces because of the existence of heavy plantation in this province or migration to other areas for studying and expanding business. Since population mobility is high, there are multi ethnics on the community. In 1994, the population density of North Sumatra Province reached 157 people per Km2. Compared to the average national population growth (2.144% per year), this province was on the lower level with 1.53% per year. The projection population composition in 1997 can be seen on the following table.
West Sumatra is one of the most beautiful areas of Indonesia. It is mountainous and divided by three valleys. There are lovely lakes and spectacular volcanoes. But Minangkabau land is very special and has the most friendly population group of Indonesia. They love to talk with visitors and will tell us about their unique society. If a visitor tries to understand the culture and Minang traditions he will soon feel himself a member of the clan. He will be invited as a guest to their homes – a unique way to become acquainted with real Indonesian life. Most of our hosts and hostesses are English teachers so language will not be much of a problem. They will show us the community and explain their customs. The land of the Minangkabau, West Sumatra has a distinct culture, which distinguishes it from the rest of the island. A land of scenic beauty with blue green lakes and mountains, West Sumatra’s Centre of culture and tourism is Bukittinggi in the highlands, north of the provincial capital of Padang. Most prominent in the landscape is the horn-shaped roofs of the houses nestled in the coconut groves. The name Minangkabau means triumphant buffalo. It leads a community and family life based on a matrilineal system, which clusters around mosques and the traditional houses. As it is the women who have the properties, the men are known for their wanderlust and entrepreneurship. Traveling is considered a mark of success and therefore many of them are found “merantau” (emigrated) to other parts of the country. This is proof that many Minang or Padang restaurants, serve very spicy food, found in all major towns in the nation. The people are hospitable and eloquent in a poetic style of speech and ceremonies. Festivals are colorful occasions.West Sumatra has a coastline where the capital is situated. The hinterland is a range of high mountains, which dip into picturesque valleys and lakes. Amongst them are the remnants of the old Minangkabau kingdom of Pagaruyung, (the art centers for silver, hand-weaving, embroidery and woodcarving).
West Sumatra province has about 49,778 sq km width, which is located between 0o 54′ North Latitude and 3o 30′ South Latitude and between 98o 36′ and 101o 53′. The boundaries of this regency is:
North Side: Riau Province
South Side: Indian Ocean
West Side: North Sumatra Province
East Side: Jambi and Bengkulu Province
West Sumatra Province has 42,297.30-km2 areas. The West Sumatran coastline faces the Indian Ocean and stretches 375 km from North Sumatra province in the northwest to Bengkulu in the southeast. West Sumatra lakes include: Maninjau (99.5 km2), Singkarak (130.1 km2), Diatas (31.5 km2), Dibawah (14.0 km2), Talang (5.0 km2). West Sumatra rivers include: Kuranji, Anai, Ombilin, Suliki, Arau. The mountains & volcanoes of West Sumatra are included: Marapi (2,891 m), Sago (2,271 m), Singgalang (2,877 m), Talakmau (2,912 m), Talang (2,572 m), Tandikat (2,438 m).
The temperature of West Sumatra province has ranges between 22o C and 32o C, and the rainfall is 2,289 mm per year.
West Sumatra Province is divided among 8 regencies and 6 municipals with Padang as its capital city.
The people of this province have a strong tradition leaving their hometown to make their way of life. Indeed, West Sumatra communities (Minang) are easily found in each province of Indonesia. In 1994, the total population reached 4,265,900 people with its density amounted to 101 people per Km2. In the 1990-1994 period, the people grew at a rate 1.6% per year or in the lower level that of the population national growth amounted to 2.144% per year.
Riau province is one of the fastest growing parts of Indonesia in terms of economic, population and tourism. Riau Province occupies the central part of eastern region on Sumatra Island, which straddles between Malacca Straits, South China Sea and Berhala Straits. The Province is a strategic region as it directly faces Malacca Straits and Singapore, one of the busiest shipping lanes in the world.
Riau is one of the richest provinces in Indonesia. This province is rich with natural resources, particularly petroleum and natural gas, rubber, and palm oil. The majority of the province is heavily forested lowland; logging is a major industry in the province.
Geographically, Riau Province lies on 445′ North Altitude up to 115′ South Longitude or 10003′ up to 10919′ Greenwich and 650′ up to 145′ West Longitude Jakarta, with natural borders as follows:
North side: North Sumatra Province, Malacca Straits
South side: Jambi Province
West Side: West Sumatra Province
East side: Riau Archipelago
Riau Province is administratively divided into 9 Regencies (Bengkalis, Indragiri Hilir, Kampar, Kuantan Singingi, Pelalawan, Rokan Hilir, Rokan Hulu, Siak) and 2 cities (Pekanbaru, Dumai), with Pekanbaru as the capital city.
This region is dominantly characterized by the sea climate with average temperature of 30°C at day and 23°C at night throughout the year. Rainy season falls on November (sometimes October) up to April while dry season begins in July. Riau has tropical climate and in general is classified into climate type “A” with relatively high rainfall, ranging from 2,000 to 3,000 mm per year in average.
Most areas in Riau are lowland plain, including alluvial islands scattered along coastal line with average elevation less than 200 m above sea level. In mainland region, there are four big rivers, i.e. Rokan River, Siak River, Kampar River and Indragiri River. These rivers spring from Bukit Barisan mountain range stretching along the border Riau Province and West Sumatra Province, and flow down to Malacca Straits. The rivers play an important role as the means of transportation, sources of irrigation, energy, and clean water as well as fishery resources. Archipelagic region of Riau, on the other hand, is formed of volcanic formation in the form of islands, big and small. The soil is in general of Organosol type (Histosol), containing much organic substance. Wide Area
The territorial size of Riau Province is 329,867.16 km consisting of land area 94,561,61 Km2 and water area 235,306,00 Km2. Riau population is 4,948,000 (2000 census).
Itswaters are the backyard of native seafaring nomads who fish and trade for a living. Their traditional wooden sailing craft, called ‘pinisi’ still do the forested channels of these islands, along with other indigenous craft, fishing vessels and cargo ships which call at the archipelago’s main town and Tanjung Pinang port. Tanjung Pinang lies on the largest island of Bintan archipelago. Once known as Riau, it was the heart of an ancient Malay kingdom. Today, Bintan is the latest hot spot of development in Indonesia’s surging economy.
A master plan is underway to turn it into a major tourist destination. Barely an hour away from Singapore by ferry, tourist accommodation has begun to appear to take advantage of its gateway from it all appeal. It consists of Riau Archipelago, Natuna Islands and Anambas Archipelago. Originally part of Riau Province, Riau Archipelago was split off as a separate Province in July 2004 with Tanjung Pinang as its capital. Anambas Archipelago, located between mainland Malaysia and Borneo were attached to the new province. By population, the most important Riau islands are Bintan, Batam and Karimun. Size wise, however, the sparsely populated Natuna Islands are larger.
Riau Archipelago with its thousands of island has plenty of scenic beaches and diving spots, among them Trikora on Bintan and Pasir Panjang on Rupat Island. The first is about 50 kilometers south of Tanjung Pinang on the eastern side of the island. Pasir Panjang, on the northern side of Rupat facing to Malacca Strait, is stretched out natural beaches are also found on Terkulai and Soreh islands, about an hour’s distance by boat from Tanjung Pinang. One of the most popular beaches is Nongsa on Batam Island. From here one can see the Singapore skyline.
Jambi province is located on the east coast of Central Sumatra faces to Malaka Straits sharing borders with four other provinces in Sumatra and has long a melting pot for different ethnic groups. The earliest inhabitants were the Kubus, who were among the first wave of Malays to migrate to Sumatra. The ancient kingdom of Melayu developed and grew in Jambi and maintained relations with the mighty kingdoms of Sriwijaya, Majapahit and Singasari, but was eventually attacked and annexed by Sriwijaya in the middle of the 17th century. Encompassing an area of 53,435 sq km, almost 60% of which is forest, the province is home to a large variety of fauna and floraand and an exhilarating place for active and adventurous visitors.
One of the greatest kingdoms in Indonesia history, the Buddhist Empire of Sriwijaya, prospered and grew along the Musi River bank in Shouth Sumatra over a thousand years ago. Located in the southern-most rim of the Shout China Sea, close to one of the world’s busiest shipping lanes linking the Far East With Europe, the region’s historical background is rich and colorful.
Sriwijaya Kingdom practiced a bustling and lucrative trade with ancient China its era of powerful dynasties and in 672,the Chinese scholar Tsing recorded that a thousand monks and scholars could be seen translating and studying Sanskrit in what is now become a regional capital of Palembang. However, few relics of this memorable era remain. Streching from the foothills of the mighty Bukit Barisan mountain range in the West Sumatra to Bangka and Belitung Island in the East, South Sumatra province is relatively flat but very fertile, with numerous rivers cutting across the landscape and meandering their way to the sea. Coffee and tea are grown in plantations in various parts of the province but the area’s enormous wealth comes from oil, natural gas, coal, tin and quartz.
Palembang is still the gateway to the province, and together with Pangkal Pinang on Bangka Island and Tanjung Pandan on Belitung, provides the region with three major airports. All three cities have direct connections with Medan, Batam, Padang and Jakarta and the future will see the introduction of flights to Singapore. Air-conditioned buses from north and west points of Palembang are also regulary available, as well as the major cities in Java and Bali.
Geographically, Jambi is located between 0o 45′ – 2o 45′ Northern Latitude and between 101o 10′ – 104o 55′ East Longitude. This province is bordered by
North side: Riau province
West side: West Sumatra
East side: Berhala Strait
South side: Bengkulu province
Jambi province area is 44,800 sq km width.
Jambi Province is divided among 5 regencies and 1 municipality.
Jambi Humidity is about 83%. The rainfall ranges about 1,940 – 2,941 mm per year. The temperature is range between 22.5oC and 33.6 C.
A migration flows to this province is supported by the existence of heavy plantation exertion and transmigration program. In 1994, the total population was 214,507 people, with an average density of 40.1 people per Km2. Compared to the average population growth amounted to 2.144% per year, this province is on the lower level with 1.21% per year during the 1990-1994 period.
Bengkulu is the smallest and lowest populated province of Sumatra. Bengkulu province is located on the southwest coast of Sumatra. It occupies of 19,831 sq. km area and has about one million populations, comprising mostly Rejang, Malay, Bugis and Chinese ethnic ancestry people. Bukit Barisan mountain range constitutes its northeastern border, beyond which laid of South Sumatra province and Jambi province. The province protected by a stretch of mountains, which soon flow into the mighty Bukit Barisan. Tigers and elephants wander through the remains of the original rainforest, where exotic rafflesia’s and orchids grow.
The British founded Bengkulu in 1685. It is a university town and administrative centre. It is the last territory in Indonesia to be held by the British. Fort Marlborough, constructed in 1762, is a castle with gatehouse that contains old gravestones with English inscription. Sir Stamford Raffles, who later found Singapore, was lieutenant – government of Bengkulu from 1818 to 1823.
Thomas Stamford Raffles was an important figure in Bengkulu history, which in 1817 was appointed as a Lieutenant-Governor of Bencoolen, the only territory in the area, which the Dutch had never managed to bring under their control. Raffles was an extraordinary and energetic man of wide-ranging interests. In the year of his arrival, he and a botanist named Joseph Arnold discovered the world’s largest flower, at Manna River near Lubuktapi, in South Bengkulu. The flower is now known as Rafflesia Arnoldi and is the official symbol of Bengkulu province.
Tabah Penanjung, an hour drive into the hills above Bengkulu is a nature reserve where rafflesias are often found. Mt Bukit Kaba, near the hill town of Curup can be climbed in a day from Bengkulu.
Geographically, Bengkulu is located between 2o and 5o South Latitude and between 101o and 104o Eastern Longitude. This Province is bordered by:
East Side: Jambi Province
West Side: Indian Ocean
South Side: Lampung Province and Indian Ocean
North Side: WestSumatra Province
Bengkulu Province is divided among 1 municipality and 3 districts, with Bengkulu as its capital city.
Its humidity is 87% and the rainfall ranges 3,598 mm per year. The temperature of this area ranges between 22.2o C and 31.1o C.
Bengkulu Province has an indigineous community consisted of Manna, Muko-Muko, and Minang. A transmigration program supports a migration flow to this province. The population density of this province was 68 people per Km2. Compared to the average national population growth amounted to 2.144% per year; this province was on the higher level with 3.42% per year in the 1990-1994.
Bengkulu province is located on the southwest coast of Sumatra. It occupies of 19,831 sq. km area and has about one million populations, comprising mostly Rejang, Malay, Bugis and Chinese ethnic ancestry people.
Bengkulu province area is 21,168-sq.km widths. Bukit Barisan mountain range constitutes its northeastern border, beyond which lie in South Sumatra and Jambi provinces.
South Sumatra Province is situated on the eastern side of Bukit Barisan mountain range South Sumatra province is relatively flat, nevertheless fertile, as numerous rivers crisscross and meander through out the region. Palembang is its capital city and as the gateway to the province, lies right on the banks of the great Musi River, 60 km upstream and navigable by oceangoing vessels. No wonder that most major social and economic activities should center in Palembang and Musi River where the region’s pride, Ampera Bridge, is found as well.
Because of its sheer location on the southernmost rim of the South China Sea and close to one of world’s busiest sea-lanes linking the Far East with Europe, the region’s historical background is undoubtedly rich and colorful. Once the very site of the Buddhist Kingdom of Sriwijaya, it practiced a bustling trade with then ancient China during its era dynasties. Inevitable of course, were the interacting forces of the two different cultures at the time, which nowadays are still noticeable as consequences of the past.
The visitors can easily reach South Sumatra by air through four major airports at Palembang, Pangkal Pinang, Bangka and Belitung islands, all having direct connections with Medan, Batam, Padang, Jakarta, and not long from now with Singapore too. Air-conditioned buses from points North and West of Palembang are regularly available, as well as from cities on Java and Bali.
Geographically, South Sumatra province is located between 1o and 4o South Latitude and between 102o and 108o East Longitude. The boundaries of the area is:
North side: South China Sea
West side: Jambi Province and Bengkulu Province
South side: Lampung Province
East side: Java Sea
South Sumatra Province is divided among 8 regencies, 2 municipals and 3 administrative towns with Palempang as its capital city.
The humidity of south Sumatra province is 78%. The rainfall range is variation between 2,000 – 3,000 mm per year and an average wind velocity of 3.23 km per hour. And the temperature ranges between 21.8o C and 32.2o C.
A migration flow to this province is supported by the existence of heavy plantation exertion, mining and transmigration program. The population density of this province is 58,8 people per Km2 (1994). Compared to the average national population growth amounted to 2.144% per year, this province was on the lower level with 1.10% per year.
The area of south Sumatra province is 103,688 sq. km width.
Lampung province is located at the extreme of south of Sumatra is overlooked, over flown by most tourists. In the past it was well known for its marvelous ‘tapi’ fabrics, some using real gold thread, and for its pepper. But today, it is the location from ambitious transmigration projects, resettling farmers from over-populated Java. It boasts volcanoes, wildlife reserve, megalithic remain and a superb coastline of deep-cut bays and wonderful beaches. Its capital is Bandar Lampung, is made up of twin cities that is Teluk Betung and Tanjung Karang. Way Kambas Nature Reserve is a 130,000 ha area of swamp and lowland forest with wild elephant, tapir and many other animals.
The name of Lampung province was taken from origin Lampungnese. Before Indonesia became independent country, a resident led Lampung region and the status was as residency area (Residentie lampungche districten) with many afdeling (afdeling Teloek betoeng, afdeling metroand afdeling kotabumi). The villages/old town with traditional living characteristic could be found like sukadana, menggala, kenali, liwa, blambangan umpu etc. A part of these town bacame the capital of district. In the first of 2000 was 7 millions the population of Lampung Province. Among 10 district / town, the most population was in central Lampung with 1.901.630 and the density population was in Bandar Lampung city, 3.763 soul/km2.
Lampung province is located between 3o 45′ and 6o 45′ South Latitude and between 103o 40′ and 105o 50′ East Longitude. This province is bordered by:
North side: South Sumatra Province
South Side: Sunda Strait
West side: Bengkulu Province
East side: Java Sea
The wide area of Lampung province is 33,307 sq km,
Lampung Province is divided among 4 regencies, 1 municipality and 1 administrative town with Bandar Lampung as its capital city.
The humidity of this province is various between 50% and 86%, and the rainfall is ranges between 2,000 and 4,000 mm per year. The temperature ranges between 20o C and 34o C.
The migration flow to Lampung province is supported by the existence of heavy plantation, fishery and industry. In 1994, the total population of this province was 6,200,306 people, with its average density of 196.8 people per Km2. Compared to the average national population growth amounted to 2.144% per year, this province was on the lower level with 2.12% per year during the 1990-1994 period. The projection and composition in 1997 can be seen on the following table.
Lampung society consists of two main groups, respectively has special traditional law. They are Peminggir traditional society and Pepadun traditional society. Peminggir societies, such as, Krui, Ranau, Komering, and Kayu Agung society, live along the coast And, Pepadun society, who customarily conservative, such as, Abung (Abung Siwo Migo), Pubian (Pubian Telu Suku), Tulang Bawang (Migo Pak), Buai Lima (Way Kanan), and Sungkay Bunga Mayang, live in the inland.
BANGKA & BELITUNG ISLAND
Bangka-Belitung is one of Indonesia provinces. It includes two large islands, Bangka and Belitung, and several smaller ones, which lie east of Sumatra, northeast of South Sumatra province. Bangka Belitung (BABEL) Islands province is the 31st Province in Indonesia, one of the newest provinces. Bangka Belitung get it’s approved as a new province in 2001 separated with south Sumatra. That acknowledgement is because of the people struggle. The region that was a great tin mines, now already to reach the new phase in its life. It provisioned with the beautiful of nature, and the uniquely of culture, Bangka Belitung step to the better future.
Supported by the “Serumpun Sabalai” spirit and abundant natural resources, it has been expecting a greater role to speed up the island region’s development, namely Bangka regency, Belitung regency and Pangkal Pinang city through cooperation development. That potency of culture and tourism is also supported by its strategic location that can connect with other interesting area. The sea transportation that become the most accessibility in Bangka Belitung Island, is support its economics activities among the Islands.
The richness of Bangka Belitung Island of nature and tin mines until its maritime rich, make Bangka Belitung a magnet for the new comers to get a better life. A Balinese countryside is found in this Island named Giri Jati village, complete with all of Bali culture that remembering us to Bali Island. Beside Bali tribe, we also can found Bugis tribe that adds the various cultures in Bangka Balitung Island. This Bugis tribe can be found in the fishermen village at Tanjung Binga. Otherwise, the original tribe, Melayu culture has strong influence in the traditional ceremony and religious ceremony. One of the ceremonies is Rebo Kasan Ceremony that done by Air Anyer village people. It is believed that one day of a year, the God give His 320,000 angels in the world. The people must together to pray. This ceremony was held in the beach, but now on, it held in the mosque then continued to the beach. Formerly, this ceremony become the people party with its star party is ‘Dambus’ art.
Bangka Belitung province is located between 104°50′ – 109°30′ East Longitude and 0°50′ – 4°10′ South Latitude, with its total area of 81,724.54 km.
Administrativelly, Bangka Belitung comprises of 2 regencies and 1 city, namely Bangka regency, Belitung regency and Pangkal Pinang City, of which, the biggest regency’s area is Bangka regency with 11,534.14 km area, and the smallest is Pangkal Pinang City, with 89.40 km area.
There are two seasons that are suitable for sailing to these islands: February-March and October-November, when the wind and the waves are low. The heaviest rainfall is around 2,500 mm per annum with its average temperature between 25°C – 26°C.
In 2001, Babel’s population was 920,729 consisted of 462,640 men and 458,089 women. The biggest population among the regencies was Bangka regency, 583,841 people, while the most density population was Pangkalpinang City, with its 1,396 people/km. In 2001, the growth of population reached 1.49 % per annum averagely. Labor. In 2000, its labor force recorded as many as 100,825 people.
Source : Indonesia Tourism Board, Indonesia – Travel