SULAWESI / Iron (Metal) Island
Sulawesi was formerly known as Celebes by the Portuguese, an island that sprawls across the sea between Kalimantan and Maluku. The name of Sulawesi bring up the romantic images of the handsome Pinisi boat of Bugis seafaris, the unique wedding and funeral ceremonies of the Torajan people and the easy going and well educated of the Manado people. Contained of pristine beaches with sparkling coral reefs, unusual shape lie the volcanic mountains, lush tropical forests, green rice terraces, deep dark lakes and ancient customs and practices of its multiple ethnic groups made Sulawesi a favourite destination for many travellers.Once called Celebes, Sulawesi was born of a violent collision between two islands three million years ago. As a result, much of it was thrust above 500 meters where, today, 17 active volcanoes still growl. The island’s extraordinary shape gives the forested 227,000 square kilometer land mass a massive 6,000-kilometer coastline. On top of that, it also boasts coastlines of more than 110 reefringed offshore islands.So remote is Sulawesi that its wonders have been largely ignored by the 20th century.
In 1989, 75,265 hectares of underwater at the northern tip of the island were made a national marine reserve – the Taman Nasional Laut Bunaken-Manado Tua. The reserve, which is reached by a short boat ride from Manado City, has world-class diving. Steep and pristine walls are smothered with hard and soft coral, and are a dazzling show of fish life. Access to this astonishing marine wonderland has vastly improved with recently introduced non-stop international air connections.
Further north lie the Sangihe-Talaud Islands, dominated by the 1,827 meter Karangetang volcano with its sulphurous clouds. Diving in Sangihe-Talaud is so new, it brims with the unexpected and unknown. The best way to explore these waters is on board one of the live-aboard dive vessels operating trips to either Sangihe-Talaud or the Togian Islands.
The Togian Islands, located off the Eastern coast of Northern Sulawesi, represent every known type of coral within an unusually small area.
Taka Bone Rate in South Sulawesi is the third largest atoll in the world. As for the Tukang Besi islands, it is rumored that Jacques Cousteau once said that it held the finest diving in the world.
South Sulawesi province comprises the narrow southwestern peninsula of this orchid-shaped island, which is mainly mountainous. The seafaring Bugis dominant the southern tip, whereas the northern part of South Sulawesi is inhabited by the Torajas whose unique culture rivals that of the Balinese. Famed for their seafaring heritage and Pinisi schooners for centuries, the Bugis possess to the present day one of the last sailing fleets in the world.
The Bugis vessels have sailed as far as the Australian beach, leaving behind drawings of their ships on stone with words that have been integrated into the Aboriginal language of north Australia. Situated on the crossroads of well-traveled sea-lanes, its capital and chief trading port of Ujung Pandang, till today the gateway to eastern Indonesia. Spanish and Portuguese galleons, followed by British and Dutch traders sailed these seas in search of the spice trade, escorted by their men of war to protect them against the daring raids of the Bugis and Makassar who attacked the intruders.
Ujung Pandang, was formerly Makassar, well known for its Makasar oil from which the English word “antimacassar” evolved for small covers to protect upholstery. The fortifications, which overlook the harbor, were originally built in 1545. Gowa’s most famous king is considered a national hero, named Sultan Hasanuddin, the 16th king of Gowa who waged a long and fierce war against the colonial forces.
The Tomanurung stone with the inscriptions can still be seen in a plot neighboring the royal graves, near Sungguminasa, formerly the seat of the Gowa kings. The Bugis kingdom of Bone, Wajo and Soppeng and the Makassarase kingdom of Gowa emerged in 13th century. Though interrelated through marriage, Bone and Gowa have for centuries battled against each other. The southern beach is protected by small archipelagoes and has excellent facilities for water sports. These islands have been developed for holiday resorts. Further north, through rugged country is Tana Toraja, often referred to as the “Land of the Heavenly Kings”.
An ethnic group who believes that their forefathers descended from heaven onto a mountain some twenty generations ago, the Torajas have a unique culture based on animistic beliefs. Known for their grand burial ceremonies on cliffs or hanging graves, they practice an ancestral cult even today where death and afterlife ceremonies are great feasts when buffaloes are sacrificed in the final death ceremony, after which the deceased’s remains are placed in a coffin and interred in caves hollowed out in high cliffs. Lifelike statues, looking out from a “balcony”, guard the mouth of the cave. As death has such an “important meaning” when the souls are released, burials are elaborate and follow feasting days. Rock graves are also a form of burial. A strict hierarchy is followed in the villages.
“Tongkonan” (family houses) are built on stilts with roofs on each end rising like the prows of a ship, representing the cosmos. The mountains offer a fantastic panorama of natural beauty, including the long drive from Ujung Pandang to Tana Toraja. South Sulawesi is also known for its silk industry and silverwork whereas its economy is based on agriculture. Ujung Pandang is easily accessible by air. There are several daily flights from Jakarta and also daily services from Bali, Surabaya and Manado.
Geographical condition and Territory of South Sulawesi Province is at 0°12′ – 8° South Latitude and 116°48′ – 122°36′ East Longitude. This Province was bounded by:
North side: Central Sulawesi
East side: Bone Bay and South-East Sulawesi
West side: Makassar Strait
South side: Flores Sea
The wide of South Sulawesi province area is 62, 482,54 Km2 (42 % of Sulawesi Island and 4,1 % of Indonesia area).
GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATION AREA
Administratively, this Province divided into 23 Regencies and 3 Cities and consists of 290 Districts.
The strategic area in east area of Indonesia has make South Sulawesi functioned as the centre of services, both for east Indonesia area and for international trade. Those services such as; commerce, land transportation, sea transportation, air transportation, education, employment, health service, field research, agricultural, tourism and even financial development.
Formerly called the Celebes, Sulawesi is one of the world’s most uniquely shaped islands. It is often referred to as the “Orchid Shaped Island”. Historically, Sultans ruled this land and the Local area is Governed by regents. Today, Sulawesi is divided into four provinces, one of them being Southeast Sulawesi, covering the lower eastern leg of this beautiful island.
Southeast Sulawesi is an Indonesia province on Sulawesi Island. The capital of the province is Kendari, on the east coast of the peninsula. The province is one of the most remote regions of Sulawesi; no highway connects it to the cities on the rest of the island, so the primary transportation link is a ferry across Bone Sea between Watampone (Bone) in South Sulawesi and Kolaka port.
The population of the province is 1.771,951 (in 2000 Census), most of which is centered on Buton island of the Sulawesi south coast, and around Kendari. From the seventeenth century until the early twentieth century, the region was the site of the Buton (Butung) sultanate.
The Southeast Province is populated by more than 1,2 million people, in five diverse and interesting cultural groups: Tolaki, Morunene, Buton, Muna (Locally called Wuna), and Bajo. All offer the visitor a glimpse of life-styles, which have survived man’s rush to modernization while using much of today’s technology to their advantage.
Most of the land area of southeast Sulawesi is covered by natural jungle, with extensive plantations of teak and ironwood, which are used for local handicraft and contribute to the local economy. Much of the beauty of the region has been preserved for prosperity by declaring it “National Parks” and “Nature Preserve.
Wonereous animals, living freely, easily seen and appreciated by visitors, inhabit the entire province. Deer, Wild Pigs, Small Rodent-Like animals called Kus-Kus, Monkey, Snakes, Anoa (small buffalo) and numerous varieties of birds abound. But the hunting of animals is forbidden in national parks preserves and carefully controlled by local government, in other areas.
The friendly of the Sulawesi People, the local flora, fauna, and untouched beaches, are the highlights of this unique located. It is truly one of the world’s last remaining. Natural habitats are waiting to show for the visitor who can appreciate such natural beauty and the people who live in it.
Central Sulawesi Province is beautiful region with its mountain; lakes and dales decorate this area. All the things are tourism potency that becomes a fascination for tourist to visit it. The fascination of main tourism in Central Sulawesi is megalith omission area of historic epoch, which stay in Bada and Besoa, however the natural beauty and sociability of its public become valuable asset for the tourism expansion in this area. Central Sulawesi is one of regional in Indonesia that has compatible solidarity between natural beauties, cultural properties and long history.
GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATION AREA
With the Government system development and people demand in Reformation era who wish the spin-offs of the region become regency, hence the Central government release policy through the constitution number 11 in 2000 about the change of the constitution number 51 in 1999 about the forming of Buol regency, Morowali regency and Banggai Island. Then through the constitution number 10 in 2002 by Central government had formed new regency in Central Sulawesi Province named Parigi Moutong regency. Thereby finite, based on the spin-offs of regency area in Central Sulawesi Propinsi, Become nine region named:
1. Donggala Regency in Donggala
2. Poso Regency in Poso
3. Banggai Regency in Luwuk
4. Toli-toli Regency in Toli-toli
5. Palu city domicile in Palu
6. Buol Regency in Buol
7. Morowali Regency in Kolonodale
8. Banggai Archipelago Regency in Banggai
9. Parigi Moutong Regency in Parigi
Central Sulawesi Province being formed with the constitution number 13 in 1964 laying between 2022′ North Latitude and 3048′ South Latitude and 119022′ East Longitudes. Its region Boundaries is:
North side: Gorontalo Province
Eastside: Maluku Province
Side South: South Sulawesi Province and South-East Sulawesi Province.
Westside: Makassar Strait
The area wide of Central Sulawesi Province is 68033 Km2. Administratively, Central Sulawesi Province divided into eight regencies and one town with 85 Districts dan1432 village with number of residents’ 2.215.449 men and density of average level is 29 men/Km2. While the resident growth rate equal to 2,59%. While the resident of Central Sulawesi Province who resided in settlement area of hinterland is 30% coastal area is 60% and archipelago area is 10%.
Like an old city in Gorontalo Province that build on 19 March 1728 (municipality, 20 Mays 1960) broadly 64,79 ha and on 0 – 500 m sea level temperature 250 C, make this town as important place in Tomini Bay with Manado with its Bunaken Island in north and Palu with its Togian Island in south side, the location of town with number of residents 200 men which 85 % is Moslem, as strategic purpose. Gorontalo is known “Culture City” which able to be seen through the variety tradition, dance, music, and it legend. The friendly people apply Gorontalo language and Indonesia in their habitually, also famous with souvenir ” Krawang Embroidery”. Journey to and from Gorontalo is easy: through diffraction land line apply transportation with bus, through sea line can be served two passenger ships like KM TILONGKABILA and direct ferry ship in port Gorontalo, through air line can apply Bouraq and Merpati Airlines to Jalaludin Gorontalo Airlines only 20 minutes from the downtown. And in his own town you can apply the public transportation wherever you go or you also can apply famous traditional gig.
Supermarket and market, dispensary, photograph studio, souvenir shop, bank, hotel, travel agent and restaurant offering Bithebiluhuta traditional foods, make the ex town that mastered by Dutch and only 15 minutes to Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park, as fascination tourism objects. Otanaha Fortress as omission object of 14century located in the beautiful lake, and the contour relation of lake and mountain make Gorontalo nature is completely fascination. With the friendly, we greet the visitors.
NORTH SULAWESI PROVINCE
Volcano Mountain influential to the ground fertility is the main capital economic from a province. This area is agricultural land that is chockablock trees, such as; coconut palm, clove and nutmeg. Manado, North Sulawesi capital is really busy city. Unfolding to lowland, palm hill around the wide bay, encircled by fertile tropical plant. Do a journey to beach, South Manado to Tasik Ria beach and to Tanawanko, then leave the hinterland through Taratara to plateau town Tomohon. It is famous as “Interest Town”, Tomohon between the two volcanoes, Lokon and Mahawu. Hilltop area have yield of fruits, vegetable, and the flower line, which is wide such as, trumpet flower, Bougainville, lily, gladiola flower, angelic and chrysene flower. The beautifully Inspirasi hill give town view with mount as the background. Two-hour climb from Kaskasan, will reside in beautiful top of the mountain. About 36 southwestern km is Manado city, the beauty of Tondano Lake have waited. Having vehicle through the pathway in Tondano through a real interesting rural and extent of clove garden. Around the lake there are a lot of restaurant providing delicious burning fish. All plateau, like this area is shown by many resident old cottages and interesting that you have to find. From the simple cottages until interesting cottages that built from odd hardwood, you will wish to spend some nights in cold climate.
North Sulawesi Provincial Capital, Manado is initial boundary to explore Minahasa area, which is powerful drawn. Full of cheers and affection, Minahasa people live in natty wooden house framework, with fence and Flower Park, give the impression that Manado like Europe. There are a lot of hotels and restaurants, which must be tried with hot cookery taste goal Minahasa. In this city there are many shops and markets with goods consumer and agricultural produce, while every stripper building, in a flash seen like emerald hill and blue sea. Marine Park Bunaken that famous in the world is near with offshore. Manado outbacko, the journey through Minahasa plateau will give you are eagerness to know about the places history of funeral, mount volcano, source of temperature wellspring, Tondano Lake plateau and awful scenery in fertile mountain, coffee plantation and coconut, orchid garden and rice field check stepped aside the hill. From Manado you can visit Dua Saudara Preserve, which is birdhouse and other typical animals in Sulawesi, like ‘Tarsier’.
Minahasa Region wide is about 1922,55 km2 with number of residents 441671 men (based on resident census in 2000). The capital of Minahasa region is Tondano, which located in plateau 700 m to sea level, encircled by magnificent hinterland with cold mountainous climate. Minahasa people trust a legend that they are the descendant of Toar and Lumimuut. The proof at the past time is Waruga, a gravestone in Sawangan Airmadidi and Watu Pinabetengan in Tompaso. At XV century, before Spain nation had arrived, a decision being taken by 7 tribe heads about division of each tribe / clump in Watu Pinabetengan. Minahasa word means merger from various tribes that taken away from word ‘esa’ or ‘one’, therefore its region named Minahasa.
TRADITIONAL MUSIC INSTRUMENTS
Minahasa people hardly love music. The famous traditional music is Bambu and Kolintang. Orchestra bamboo applies castanets that made from bamboo (exclusive bamboo), sometimes made of bronze (bamboo clarinet) or tin (bamboo zinc). Kolintang come from Minahasa area. Kolintang is looks like Xylophone (xylophone which made from wooden) and famous in all of countries.
Music Bia, quad scallop-shell is other castanets that less popular, but still applied in some places in North Sulawesi.
Maengket is common name for dance traditional drama that used in some places in Minahasa. There are 3 folk dances:
Makamberu: a dance that is describing / depict when it crop and some choreographies remind at poem / love rhyme.
Marambak: that is carrying out to build a new house and under developed of era in traditional value.
Mah’laya; usually it is humor and generally full of joviality.
There are also some other folk dances, like:
Kabasaran: sometime called as “Cakalele Minahasa”, what carried out as welcome dance to greet the ‘Datuk’ who had visited.
Tumatenden: it is a nymph love story, which describes folklore of Tumatenden.
Lenso Dance: it is a dance that being taken away from Maengket, where the dancers apply hand broom when they were dancing.
THE MEANING of MINAHASA SYMBOL
* Shield Form: An ability Symbol to face various challenges.
* Motto I YAYAT SUSANTI: ready with intention strive for the shake of development.
* Bird Manguni: the bird type in Minahasa, where plenty is admired by people because it can give sign if something there will be, and have deep feeling, and its eye is far sharply stare.
* Number of wings 17 sheets and 5 sheets, mean the proclamation number of Republic of Indonesia independence, which based on Five Principles.
* Chest part is coconut palm symbol, as Minahasa main commodity since former
Source : Indonesia Tourism Board, Indonesia – Travel