North Maluku is a province of Indonesia. It covers the northern part of Maluku Islands, which are split between it and Maluku Province. Maluku Province used to cover the entire group. The planned provincial is Sofifi, on Halmahera, but the current capital and largest population is Ternate Island. So, the capital of North Maluku is Ternate.
In the sixteenth and seventeenth century, the islands of North Maluku were the original “Spice Islands”. At the time, the region was the sole source of cloves. The Dutch, Portuguese, Spanish, and local kingdoms including Ternate and Tidore fought each other for control of the lucrative trade in these spices. Nutmeg trees have since been transported and replanted all around the world and the demand for nutmeg from the original spice islands has ceased, greatly reducing North Maluku’s international importance.
In North Maluku the land makes up just 15 percent of the area’s total surface. In many places the surrounding seas could be thousands of meters deep. North Maluku is in a transition zone between the Asian and Australian fauna and flora, and also between the Malay-based cultures of western Indonesia and those of Melanesia.
A great variety of endemic plant and animal species are found in the rugged forest-covered and mountainous hinterlands of most of the islands. A few of the best known are the Rucker-tailed Kingfisher, the Red-crested Moluccan Cockatoo and various brilliantly colored lorikeets and parrots.
North Maluku sits astride one of the world’s most volatile volcanic belts. The region has known more than 70 eruptions in the last 400 years. Tremors and volcanic eruptions are by no means rare events at present. Many islands, in fact, look from a distance like volcanic cones rising right out of the sea.
Air and sea transportation are the main means, which link the islands together. Good roads on the islands provide easy access to the often-remote places of interest.
There are two seasons that are suitable for sailing to these islands: February-March and October-November, when the wind and the waves are low.
The boundaries of North Maluku is:
- East Side: Halmahera Sea
- West Side: Maluku Sea
- North Side: Pacific Ocean
- South Side: Seram Sea
The wide area of North Maluku Region is 164.370,12 Km2.
The population of North Maluku is 870,000 (according to the National Socio-Economic Survey, 2004, making it the least populous province in Indonesia. The Tribes are: Module, Pagu, Ternate, Makian Barat, Kao, Tidore, Buli, Patani, Maba, Sawai, Weda, Gne, Makian Timur, Kayoa, Bacan, Sula, ange, Siboyo, dan Kadai. Galela, Tobelo, Loloda, Tobaru, Sahu. The religions that had developed in Maluku are Islam, Protestant, Catholic, Buddha, etc.
Maluku Province has 5 Regencies, 2 city, 45 districts, 650 villages and 80 sub-districts. They are:
- West Halmahera Regency
- Sula Islands
- South Halmahera Regency
- North Halmahera Regency
- East Halmahera Regency
- Ternate City and Tidore islands
Maluku (Moluccas), a region of Indonesia formerly known as the Spice Islands, was once the source of cloves and nutmeg, spices highly valued for their aroma, preservative ability, and use in medicine before people learned how to cultivate the plants in other parts of the world. Maluku is a cluster of about one thousand islands totaling 74,504 square kilometers, forming part of the Malay Archipelago in eastern Indonesia near New Guinea. The region is divided into two provinces, Maluku with its capital in Ambon, and North Maluku (2002 estimated population 913,000), with its capital in Ternate; other important islands in the group include Halmahera, Seram, and Buru.
Its approximately 1000 islands support a population of less than 1.7 million people. The average population density figure is 19 people per-square kilometer, but the distribution is uneven. Air and sea transportation is the main means, which link the islands together. The province has 32 seaports and 20 airports, and only about 160 km of roads. However, good roads on many of the islands provide easy access to the often-remote places of tourists’ interest.
Maluku lies in the transition zone between Asiatic and Australian flora and fauna and has a tropical climate. Maluku’s flora includes meranti trees and many kinds of orchids; distinctive fauna includes cuscuses, birds of paradise, wild goats, and parrots. The economy is based on subsistence agriculture, especially sago (the sago palm, producing a starch used in food), and on the export of such products as spices, cacao, coffee, coconuts, fish, and minerals. Important indigenous groups include the Ambonese.
A great variety of endemic plant and animal species are found in the rugged forest-covered and mountainous hinterlands of most of the islands. A few of the best known are the Rucker-tailed kingfisher, the red-crested Moluccan cockatoo, and various brilliantly colored lorikeets and parrots. Most of Maluku sits astride one of the world’s most volatile volcanic belts.
Maluku province with its capital Ambon, stay at 30 north latitudes 8,300 south latitudes and 1250 – 1350 east longitudes with the area boundaries:
- North side: North Maluku Province
- South side: Timor Leste and Australia
- West Side: Southeast Sulawesi and Central Sulawesi
- East Side: Irian Jaya Province
THE WIDE AREA
The wide area of Maluku province is 712.479,69 km_, with the land wide is 54.185km_ and sea wide is 658.294,69km_.
The Maluku Province plain is 85.728 km2 width or 8.572.800 Ha contain of 3 part that is:
- Flat Land: 1.251.630 Ha width (14,6%)
- Wavy Land: 2.417.530 Ha width (28,2%)
- Hilly and Mountainous Land: 4.903.640 Ha width (57,2%)
Almost, Maluku has no upland. The mountain is a back that spread in the middle of the island, forming the mountain with the highest of 3.055 m.
Maluku province consists of mountains, islands that spread from west to east and form north to south among 1150 km.
GOVERNMENT ADMINISTRATION AREA
Administratively, Maluku Province divided into four regencies and one city that is:
- Central Maluku regency with 15 districts, 296 villages and 6 sub-districts.
- Southeast Maluku regency with 8 districts, 229 villages and 6 sub-districts.
- West-Southeast Maluku regency with 5 districts, 187 villages and 1 sub-district.
- Buru regency with 3 districts, 62 villages.
- Ambon city with 3 districts, 30 villages and 20 sub-districts.
Maluku has 2 seasons, that is: west season or north, and southeast or east. West season in Maluku is come from December until March, while April is transition season to southeast season. Southeast season is average 6 months begin from May and end on October. The transition to West season is on November.
The homogenate seasons are give different affect to the land and its sea in this region. The temperature is about 26,2 C (in Southeast Maluku especially in rainy).