KALIMANTAN (BORNEO) EDEN GARDEN
Kalimantan is an island for you to explore. It is the world’s third largest island the area of 747.000 square kilometers and covered one of the world’s largest tropical rain forests which flows giant rivers which are the island’s highway. Rivers are the main transportation arteries in this island. The island is rich with the many fascinating and endemic wildlife such as the orangutans, proboscis monkeys, the flying snakes, hundred species of birds.
Kalimantan is also the home of the original inhabitants, Orang Gunung or Mountain people that called collectively as the Dayak tribe. The Dayak people lives in the hinterland along the banks of major rivers and in long houses. The long houses are built on wooden piles which can sometimes be as tall as 3 meters high as protection against wild animals and flooding. It is customary for the people to live with he a whole extended family or with one clan. Each family has their own compartment and the chief of the clan will occupy the central chamber.
The most common starting point to explore Kalimantan is Balikpapan and Samarinda in the east part of the island because of the regular flight services from Jakarta, Surabaya and Denpasar. Traveling along the extensive Mahakam river is a fascinating adventure. Meeting the Dayak people and visit their long houses, trekking, and overnight on the motorized long boat or in the long house of the Dayak people. Kalimantan is indeed worth to explore.
Kalimantan has a number of nature reserves to protect its unique flora and fauna. Kersik Luway is where the very rare ‘Black Orchid’ (Colongenia Pandurata) grows, located upstreams the Mahakam river, East Kalimantan. Bontang, in the regency of Kutai with an area of about 200,000 ha, has a rare flora and fauna. The Kutai National Park near Bontang is worth visiting to see scenery especially those at Beras Basah. Tanjung Puting National Park in Central Kalimantan is the oldest conservation site of Kalimantan’s flora and fauna. The park is inhabited by Orang Utans, Owa-owa, Bekantan and other primates. Also found here the Orang Utan Rehabilitation Centre which is supported by the Would Wildlife Fund (WWF). In West Kalimantan, Gunung Palung National Park located in the Ketapang regency is home to miscellaneous flora and fauna. The Raya Pasi mountain located in the Singkawang regency is also an interesting place to visit to see the Rafflesia or giant flower. Singkawang is also a nature reserve. The forest of Sanggau is worth a visit where hot springs, lakes and caves can be found. The other nature reserves are the forests of Baning and Kelam Hill in the Sintang regency. While in Kapuas Hulu, there is the Bentuang. In South Kalimantan, there is the Kaget island, home to a wide variety of birds and monkeys, Most notably the humorous longnosed proboscis monkeys.
In East Kalimantan, Berau and Marine Tourism on Derawan island is where we can see the remains of a kingdom called the Keraton Gunung Tambur and the Keraton Sarnbaliung. Derawan island is approximately 3 hours boating from Tanjung Redep (The Capital of Berau regency). It is also a good place for water sports such as scuba diving, fishing, and swimming. Tenggarong, up the Mahakam river from Samarinda, is the capital of the Kutai regency and was once the seat of the Kutai sultanate. The Sultan’s Palace on the riverside is now a museum where historical objects from the sultanate are kept. Every 24th of September, dance and music performances are given to celebrate the town’s anniversary. Tanjung Isuy, located in East Kalimantan hinterland, has a traditional Dayak long-house which has been turned into lodges for visitors. Visitors are usually greeted by a traditional Benuaq Dayak welcome. The place can be reached through the scenic Mahakam river. At Muara Ancalong – Muara Wahau visitors can watch traditional dances of Kenyah Dayak which are performed at a long-house. In Flower Island, South Kalimantan, we can find many species of monkeys and an old Chinese temple where local Chinese bring offerings of fresh fruit and peanuts to a tribe of aggressive macaquef in hopes of being blessed with even greater prosperity. An original Betang (traditional longhouse) can be seen in Saham village, 158 km from Pontianak, West Kalimantan. The measures of this long-house are: 186 m long, 6 m wide, inhabited by 269 people. A heritage to Kaharingan religion, a sect of Hinduism, can be found in Bukit Rawi, small village of Central Kalimantan.
Trekking and water adventure
A trip along the Mahakam river in East Kalimantan offers unique riverside scenery of rare flora and fauna. Floating markets of all sizes can be found everywhere on Barito River, Banjarmasin South Kalimantan, with the one at the junction of the Kuin and Barito rivers is considered one of the best. Market activities usually end at 9 am. The traditional villages around Loksado, in the mountains east of Kandangan, is a wonderful place to be explored by foot. Amandit river is an excellent place for white water rafting. The first stretch, from Loksado to Muara Hatip, has rapids ranked grades I to 21/2. The second, from Muara Hatip to Batu Laki, includes rapids of grade 3. White-water lovers can also find satisfaction in Gohong Rawai, Central Kalimantan, known for its beautiful and challenging rapids. Many cities in Kalimantan are best explored through rivers, such as Pontianak and Banjarmasin.
In Teweh and Batu Apu gold mines, located in Rungan district of Central Kalimantan, gold panning is done traditionally by local people. A number of gold mines can also be found in other parts of Central Kalimantan. Traditional diamond digging, mostly with simple equipment, can be observed in Cempaka, 45 minutes from Banjarmasin South Kalimantan. In Martapura, visitors can see how precious stones are cut and polished. Beaches and resorts Kumai Beach, approximately 22.5 km from Pangkalanbun in Central Kalimantan has exotic views and serves as a transit place before Tanjung Puting National Park. Pasir Panjang, 17 km from Singkawang in the Sambas regency, South Kalimantan has a beach resort, ideal for swimming. Comfortable cottages are available equipped with a tennis court. In the vicinity of Singkawang, the Gunung Poteng hill resort with its fresh air is a good place for nature lovers. In East Kalimantan, Tanah Merah Indah – Lempake recreational park has a waterfall, located about 16 km from downtown Samarinda. Kijing and Temajoh island beach resorts near Pontianak, West Kalimantan, is also a good place for diving, fishing and sailing.
The Principal Towns
Samarinda, the capital of East Kalimantan, is known for its fine sarong cloth. Samarinda has a number of modest but comfortable hotels. Balikpapan has the second busiest airport in Indonesia. The city now serves as the gateway to East Kalimantan with air and sea connections to Jakarta and other major points in Indonesia. It has a number of good hotels, including one of international standard, as well as recreation facilities. Baniarmasin, capital of South Kalimantan is now developing as a tourist city. The nickname ‘river city’ reflects the unique way of life of its local residents found along the numerous rivers crisscrossing the city. Palangkaraya is the center of government, train and education of Central Kalimantan. Worth visiting is the Regional Museum of Palangkaraya that contains historical and cultural interests from all over Central Kalimantan. Pontianak is the capital of West Kalimantan lies exactly on the equator’ Some interesting place to visit are Equator Monument, Kadariah Palace in Kampung Dalam, the State Museum, the Kapuas and Landak Bridges. This city is best explored by boat along the many rivers found in it.
In most languages in the world, the term Kalimantan refers to the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo, while for Indonesians, the name “Kalimantan” usually refers to the whole island of Borneo. The Indonesian territory makes up approximately 3-quarters of the island, and the non-Indonesian parts of Borneo are of Brunei and East Malaysia.
Kalimantan is divided into four provinces:
As a major producer of oil and timber, East Kalimantan is at present the most industrially advanced province of the island and the second largest province in Indonesia. It is also the home of the original inhabitants of Kalimantan, the Orang Gunung or Mountain People. The tribes to collectively called Dayak although this name is not embraced by many tribes-people themselves, who prefer to be known by Separate tribal names such as Iban, Punan and Banuaq
Local tribes traditionally live in communal long houses called Lamin or Umaq Daru. They are built on wooden piles, sometimes 3 meters high as protection against wild animals and flooding. The Punan people are nomadic hunter-gatherers, and only use the long house at the height of the rainy season. Steeped in tradition, the interior of the long house is typically divided into separate family quarters with communal areas connecting each of the families. It is in these communal areas that village meetings are held and ceremonies performed thereby reinforcing the strong tribal bonds in the face of rapidly advancing 20th century technology.
Guardian statues are normally placed in front of long houses to protect them against evil’ spirits who bring disease and bad fortune. The more remote and traditional tribes -people have pierced earlobes which over the years have become stretched by the weight of heavy gold or brass rings, and beautifully elaborate tattoos. Local jewellery and designs are intricate and powerful, often giving messages to he passed down from generation to generation.
The most common starting points for many journeys and adventures inland are Balikpapan and Samarinda, the provincial capital. Traveling along the extensive Mahakam river system is a fascinating adventure. River boats slide unobtrusively through heavily silt-laden waters, wild orchids drip off trees, Proboscis monkeyssignal your arrival to the crocodiles and legendary horn bills.
A 5,000 acre Orchid Reservation close to the village of Kersil Luwai cultivates 27 different species of orchid including the very rare Colo-genia Pandurata or black orchid.
Samarinda is known for its fine sarong cloth. The City shows some signs of being the capital of a prosperous province. New government office and public utilities arc rising everywhere. Samarinda has a number of modest but comfortable hotels.
Balikpapan, the center of Kalimantan’s oil industry, is also the Gateway to East Kalimantan with air and sea connections to Jakarta and other major points in Indonesia. Balikpapan has a number of good hotels, including one of international standard, as well as recreation facilities. It has the second busiest airport in the nation after Jakarta.
Berau and Marine Tourism on Derawan Island
Found here are the remains of a king called the Keraton Gunung Tambur and The Keraton Sambaliung Derawan island is + 3 hours by a long boat from Tanjung Redep. There are many rare animals’ such as green turtle, the Scarlet turtle, star fruit turtle and sea cow.
Tanah Merah Indah – Lempake
This is recreational park called Tanah Merah Indah-Lempake with a waterfall, located + 16 km from downtown Samarinda. It can be reached by car or public transportation.
Tenggarong, up the Mahakam river from Samarinda, is the capital of the Kutai regency’ and was once the seat of the Kutai Sultanate. The Sultan’s palace at the riverside is now a museum where the old royal paraphernalia are kept, as well as an excellent collection of antique Chinese ceramics. Dayak statues can be admired in the yard. A curious thing about the royal paraphernalia is that they display a strong resemblance with Java’s court traditions. Every 24th of September, the former palace becomes a stage of dance and music performances given to celebrate the towns’ anniversary.
This little settlement around Lake Jempang, in the lake-studded East Kalimantan hinterland, has a traditional Dayak long house, which have been turned into lodges for visitors. The grave of a Banuaq Dayak chief lies aside the hamlet’s only road. Visitors are usually given a traditional Banuaq Dayak welcome. The trip to Tanjung Isuy over the Mahakam River is a long but interesting one past floating villages and forest scenery. If you are lucky, you can watch a belian, or witch doctor dressed in his skirt of leaves, cures his patients at night by performing the rites prescribed by ancestors to the frenzied accompaniment of gongs and drums. Many Banuaq Dayak’s still prefer the old cures to the modern ones at government public health center, which are nearby.
Melak – Kersik Luway
Melak is a little village further stream on the Mahakam River in the heart of the land of Tanjung Dayak. Not far from the village is the Kersik Luway nature reserve, where the ‘Black Orchid’ grows.
Muara Ancalong – Muara Wahau
Dances of the Kenyah Dayak are often performed here for visitors at a traditional long house
Land of the Equator
Lying directly on the equator and serving as the main gateway into the Province of West Kalimantan is the provincial capital of Pontianak. Founded in 1771 by Syarif Abdul Rahman Al-Kadri of Saudi Arabia, the city is now a bustling economic hub as well as home to a sizeable university and a giant indoor sports stadium. Canals crisscross the city and one of Indonesia’s longest rivers, the Kapuas (1143 km long), divides the town in two, providing an essential and historical communications link. Like Java and Sumatra, West Kalimantan was once an important cultural crossroads.
Hinduism reached West Kalimantan by about the year 400 and evidence of both early Hindu and Buddhist civilizations in the region have been discovered. Stone carvings and ceramics can be traced as far as the 5th century, but it is the influence of Islam that has had the most impact on this region.
The advent of Islam in West Kalimantan occurred at about the same time as the rise of the first Islamic Kingdom in Aceh in the 15th century. Islam was rapidly embraced and various kingdoms grew in strength and power, particularly because of Kalimantan’s strategic importance along trade routes to China and the Philippines.
West Kalimantan covers an area of over 146.807 sq km, rich in a variety of minerals and precious stones, and remains largely unexplored. Coastal areas are mainly swamp lands with more than 100 rivers sculpting the flat plains. In the mountainous eastern parts of the province, away from the city and plains, there are many Dayak villages.
The Dayak’s have ancient traditions and beliefs which are expressed in various forms; earlobes elongated by heavy earnings, tattoos, intricate paintings, designs and carvings and wonderful dances of respect, heroism, welcome cure. A large Chinese population, Malays and other Indonesian ethnic groups account for the rest of the inhabitants of the province.
West Kalimantan is easily accessible from Jakarta or Singapore by air and boat and overland journeys provide a rare opportunity to see the interior of one the world’s largest and richest islands.
The best way to see Pontianak is by boat along the canals that crisis-cross the city. Special places of interest include: Equator Monument, Kadariah palace in Kampung Dalam, the State Museum, and the Kapuas and Landak Bridges. No visit to Pontianak would be complete without an adventure into one of the famous floating markets. The nearby beach resort for diving, fishing and sailing.
Betang (Long House)
There is a traditional Dayak long house at Saham village. The structure measures 186m long and 6m wide, with 269 people living together under a single roof! There is no accommodation here.
17 km from Singkawang in the Sambas regency, is the beach resort of Pasir Panjang, ideal for swimming and tennis. Comfortable cottages are available. In the vicinity of Singkawang, the Gunung Poteng Hill Resort is a good place for nature lovers.
National Park and Nature Reserve
The Gunung (Mount) Palung National Park, located in the Ketapang regency, is home to an incredible array of flora and fauna. Hot springs, lakes and caves are among the many special features here.
Central Kalimantan is the biggest province on the island, covering 153,800 square kilometers, most of which is jungle. The northern area is mountainous and difficult to reach. The central area is dense tropical forest. The southern are is swampy and has many rivers. The climate is hot and humid.
he three sub-tribes who inhabit this province are the Ngaju, Ot Danum, and Ma’ayan Ot Siang. The Ngaju are nomadic, adhering to the old Kaharingan religion, which is a form of ancestor worship mixed with elements of animism. With approximately 6,000 people, the Ot Danum is the largest among the three sub-tribes. The Ot Danum live in long houses, which sometimes have as many as 50 rooms. The women are known for their skill in plaiting rattan, palm leaves, and bamboo. Like other Dayak’s, the men are good hunters, using simple tools.
The art of Central Kalimantan clearly bears the marks of the Kaharingan religion, which is the traditional belief of the Dayak’s in the hinterland of Central Kalimantan. Building styles, statues and carvings have been influenced by the Hindus, Chinese, and Hindu-Javanese. Aside from their aesthetic properties, many objects are appreciated for their magic value.
In the local Dayak language, Palangkaraya means ‘holy container’. Palangkaraya can easily be reached from Jakarta, Banjarmasin, Samarinda, Balikpapan and other points on the island by air. The town has become the center of government, trade and education of the province. The Regional Museum of Palangkaraya contains a collection of historical and cultural interest from all over Central Kalimantan. The Nature Reserve of Tangkiling lies 34 kilometers north of Palangkaraya.
Kuala Kapuas is the capital of the Kapuas regency, on the Kapuas River 40 kilometers from Banjarmasin. A well-known tourist attraction is Telo Island, a pleasant fishing village and port. For the adventurer, white-water rafters and nature’s lovers, there is Gohong Rawai, known for its beautiful and challenging rapids. The gold mines of Teweh and Batu Api, Rungan district, are also interesting sites to be visited. In this region, gold mining is a major source of livelihood for the people, who pan for the valuable metal using the old traditional method. Gold mines are found in many places in Central Kalimantan.
Sampit is the biggest timber port in Kalimantan and Indonesia. Pandaran Beach is a park on the seaside at the mouth of the Sampit river. The Orchid Park of Pembuangan Hulu is home to a number of rare and beautiful orchid varieties. Hunters can engage in their favorite pastime in the hunting park of Kotawaringin Barat.
Pangkalanbun is the capital of the Kotawaringin Barat regency, in the western part of Central Kalimantan. Make sure to visit the old Palace of Pangkalabuan, constructed completely out of Ulin (ironwood). It is the only Banjar royal legacy found in Central Kalimantan. The Mosque of Kyai Gede is more than 300 years old. Tanjung Puting National Park is a well-known nature and wildlife reserves in the lowland and swamp forests, inhabited by Orang Utan, Owa-owa, Bekantan and other primates. One can visit the Orang Utan Rehabilitation Center, which is supported by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF).
The Meratus Mountains divided South Kalimantan into two distinct regions. The eastern part of the province is filled with the mountains covered with dense tropical rain forests, home to the “Orang Gunung” or Mountain Peoples.
Collectively called the Dayak, they form the minority of the region’s population. The Southern section of the province is much flatter with large rivers, meandering through lowlands to vast mangrove swamps along the coast, helping to make South Kalimantan an exceptional fertile land. Many villages and settlements have been built along these rivers, particularly the Barito River, by the indigenous majority, the Banjar.
South Kalimantan is full colorful and distinctive traditional arts and cultures which can be seen in its people’s ways of life, art, dance, music, ancestral dress, games and ceremonies. Exquisite traditional and commercial hand-crafts are all made from local raw materials which include a variety of precious and semi-precious stones, gold, silver, brass, iron and a wide variety of trees such as ironwood, meranti, pinups and rubber have helped to make the province a unique and rich natural resource.
The provincial capital, Banjarmasin, lies a short distance from the mouth of the Barito River at its confluence with the Martapura River. The rivers are literally the lifeblood of the city and everything revolves around them. They are lined with tightly packed stilt houses. A lot of business is done on the water ways; floating markets flourish selling an enormous variety of goods including a tropical selection of fresh fruit such as Kesturi, a rare aromatic species of mango, durian, rambutan, butter fruit, pineapple, watermelon and banana.
South Kalimantan is well connected with cities all over the Indonesian Archipelago through Syamsuddin North airport, which is about 25 km from Banjarmasin. This busy airport handles DC-9’s, allowing Merpati Nusantara, Bouraq and Dirgantara Air to service the province. South Kalimantan can also be reached by sea at Trisakti arid Banjarmasin. For interior travel there are roads, but the waterways are the preferred form of travel.
Banjarmasin and its surroundings
Banjarmasin, the capital city, lies at the delta of the Barito river. Nicknamed ‘River City’, it is crisscrossed by numerous rivers of various sizes and lengths, the major two being the Martapura and Nagara. Local people build traditional floating houses made of wood or bamboo facing the rivers called “lanting”. There is a virtual flood of lively floating markets. To experience Banjarmasin you must take to the river, either by “klotok” (river bus), or a speedboat for longer trips.
Banjarmasin is developing as a tourist city. Supermarkets such as Mitra Plaza, Ujung Murung Central Market, and Pasar Barn provide for the travelers needs. There are 7 starred hotels and 20 lesser hotels. For entertainment there are 21 movie theatres, Karaoke bars, cultural theatres and restaurants serving local as well as international foods.
There are floating markets of all sizes everywhere on the river, but one of the best is at the junction of the Kuin and Barito rivers. Get there early, everyone packs up and heads home by 9am.
The island on the Barito River is not far from the floating market. Although there are many species of monkeys on the island, most of the action is at the old Chinese temple where local Chinese bring offerings of fresh fruit and peanuts to a tribe of aggressive macaques in hopes of being blessed with even greater prosperity.
It takes about 1 1/2 hours by klotok boat or 1 hour by speedboat to get to this island reserve, home to a wide variety of birds and monkeys, most notably the humorous long-nosed proboscis monkeys.
Diamond Digging at Cempaka & Martapura
Cempaka is a small village 10-km from Banjar Baru, and 45 minutes from Banjarmasin. It is an old site of traditional diamond dig, using very simple equipment. In 1985 a large raw diamond of 116.7 carats was found. Martapura is the center of diamond and precious stone polishing.
Loksado is an important market town in the mountains east of Kandangan, and an excellent place to base yourself for exploring the area. There are a few small Losmen and hotels for accommodation. The trekking is wonderful; over 20 villages in the surrounding area are inhabited by peoples lying in the traditional ways
Adventure River Rafting
The Amandit River runs through Loksado and then joins the mighty Barito River. Visitors usually use the river to get back after visiting Loksado. The river trip, by either bamboo or rubber boat, includes some exciting white water sections. The trip can be made in two parts. The first is from Loksado to Muara Hatip. The second is from Muara Hatip to Batu Laki. The first stretch has rapids ranked grades t to 2 1/2. The second includes rapids of grade 3
West Kalimantan is one of Indonesia Province, which has cope building in reach the aspiration for the shake of prosperity of it public. This region unfold northerly straight to south along the length of more than 600 km and about 850 km from west easterly, broadly regional 146807 km (7,53 percentage of Indonesia wide or 1,13 wide Java island) and become the fourth widest Province after Irian, East Kalimantan and Central Kalimantan.
West Kalimantan area is as one of area, which common called as “A Thousand Rivers” province. This nickname is suitable with its geographical condition, which has hundreds great and small rivers and is often navigated. Some great rivers till now, is still be a main line for hinterland transportation, although land road infrastructure have been able to reach most of district, although partly small of West Kalimantan regions are water territory went out to sea, however West Kalimanatan has tens of big and small island (partly not dweller), which spread over along the length of Karimata Strait and Natuna Sea that is abutting on Riau Province region, Sumatera.
West Kalimantan Resident embraces various religions, like Islam, Catholic, Protestant, Buddha, Hindu and believe follower to the one supreme God. Most of West Kalimantan resident works in agricultural sector, plantation, fishery and commerce.
West Kalimantan Province is formed based on the constitution Number 25 in 1956 determined that West Kalimantan region as autonomous area province with its capital in Pontianak and because the constitution applied since 1 Januaries 1957, hence the West Kalimantan Province anniversary is commemorated on that date.
CENTRAL KALIMANTAN AT A GLANCE
Central Kalimantan is one of the biggest Provinces in Indonesia with area total 153564 km2 or one-third from total Kalimantan Island, or equal to Java and Madura Island. Most of it, is jungle (80%), swamps, rivers and agriculture land. The northern area is mountainous and difficult to reach. The central area is dense and fertile tropical forest, producing valuable commodities such as rattan, resin and the best woods. The southern area is swampy and has many rivers. The boundaries of this province are:
- North side: West Kalimantan and East Kalimantan
- Side South: Java Sea and South Kalimantan
- Westside: West Kalimantan
River has an important role people in Central Kalimantan. There is houseboat, but also have important meaning for people in transportation. Make a move out of one place to other place along the length of river to trade. Transportation facilities are limited much to the rough terrain. Central Kalimantan Province, cover one municipalities and five regencies: Palangkaraya Municipality, West Kotawaringin regency, East Kotawaringin regency, Kapuas regency, South Barito regency, North Barito regency, Administrative Town Kasongan, Administrative Assistant Kalingan, Administrative Assistant Seruyan, Administrative Assistant Gunung Mas, Administrative Assistant Pisau Island, Administrative Assistant Permata Intan, Administrative Assistant Sukamara. Central Kalimantan has a humid and hot climate.
The three big Dayak tribes who inhabit this province are Ngaju, Ot Danum, and Ma’anyan Ot Siang. Ngaju, like some other tribes, moves from one region to another. They adhere to the old Kaharingan religion, which is the form of ancestor worship, mixed with animism elements. They have seen progress. Many of them live in the towns, have enjoyed an education and they are intelligent.
The Ot Danum live in longhouses, which sometimes have as many as 50 rooms. The unique longhouse is called Betang. With approximately 6,000 people, the Ot Danum is the largest among the three tribes. They are known for their skill in plaiting rattan, palm leaves, and bamboo. Made by the women, such products are sold in many cities such as Banjarmasin, Kualakapuas, and Sampit. Like other Dayaks, the men are good hunters, using simple tools. The art of Central Kalimantan clearly bears the marks of the Kaharingan religion, which is the traditional belief of the Dayaks in the hinterland of Central Kalimantan. The building styles are the elements of the Hindus, Chinese, and Hindu-Javanese. Aside from their aesthetic properties, such products are appreciated for their magic value.
The Ngaju, the most known Barito Bayak, managed the creation of the province of Central Kalimantan. They speak different dialects of which the Kahayan has become the local dialect. Most Ngaju practice Kaharingan, or are converted to protestantism; only the Bakumpai Ngaju converted to islam over a century ago.
The branding longhouses of the Dayak are hard to find among the Ngaju. Their place is taken by communal rooms, in which meeting and rytes are held. The Ngaju belong to the best artists of Borneo. This reputation is shown in the ceremonial objects for the dead, like the wooden coffins, tombes, and sailboats and big statues.
The Ma’anyan speak a language which is almost the same with that on Madagascar. There is a lot of speculation that their ancestors crossed the sea to Madagascar in the 3rd or 4th century. This would mean that the Ma’anyan lived more close to the beach than they do today.
The different Ma’anyan communities hold contact with each other and with the cities along the Barito by periodical markets. Their most important product for trade – nice canoos made out of one piece – are loved among the Banjarese.
During wars the Ma’anyan lived in family houses in pillars, which could be as high as seven meters. Many Ma’anyan practiced the Kaharingan religion. They know complicated rytes in combination with agriculture and funerals, bring sacrifices for spirits and ask a sjaman when someone has fallen ill. On their graveyard, you can see that the Ma’anyan used to be very layered: the bone-houses of the nobility are placed more upstream, followed to the ones of the warriors, the normal population and the slaves, most downstream.
Before a traditional marriage, the comming husband needs to work and live with the family for five years. This period can be shortened by payments to the coming mother-in-law. This is an extra on the bridal treasure, which consists of bronze drums, beads and money.
The Ot Danum
The Ot Danum (the name means upstream area) live in the area around the rivers north of the Ngaju and south of the Schwaner- and Müller Range, as well as the Melawi-beaken of West Kalimantan, which is located north of the Schwaner Range. Their area is three hundred km wide stretch of land just south of the equator. The Ngaju see the Ot Danum as their cultural ancestors, but there are remarkable differences between the two groups. The Ot Danum live in longhouses in pillars, two to five meters above the ground. This habit is probably taken from the Kenyah or Kayan.
The same with the headhunting, the mild form of social hierarchy and the images on shields and mandau lemmets. However the religion of the Ot Danum looks like that of the Ngaju (most of them still practice kaharingan), their ritual re-burials are more simple and their woodcarvings are less detailed.
East Kalimantan is the widest province in Indonesia, broadly region is about 245237,80 Km2 or about one a half point of Java Island and Madura or 11 % from Indonesia region wide total. This province abuts on direct with neighboring state, that is Sabah and Serawak, East Malaysia.
Based on the government region, this province is divided into 4 municipal administrations, and 9 regencies and 122 Districts, 1347 villages and 191 sub-districts.
East Kalimantan Province has 13 Regencies and Cities
- Berau Regency
- Bulungan Regency
- Kutai West Regency
- Kutai Kartanegara Regency
- Kutai East Regency
- Malinau Regency
- Nunukan Regency
- Pasir Regency
- North Penajam Paser Regency
- Balikpapan City
- Bontang City
- Samarinda City
- Tarakan City
East Kalimantan Resident in 2004 amount to 2.750.369 men in 2005 East Kalimantan residents is predicted amount to 2,8 million men. It is compared to region wide, East Kalimantan Province has low density, that is mean about 11,22 men per Km2.
The main result of this province is mining products like oil, natural gas, and stone smoldered. Other sector being grow is agricultural and tourism.
East Kalimantan has some tourism objects such as;
- Derawan Archipelago in Berau,
- Kayan Mentarang National Park
- Batu Lamampu Beach in Nunukan
- The Crocodile Breeding in Balikpapan
- The Deer Breeding in Penajam,
- Dayak Pampang Kampong in Samarinda,
- Amal Beach in Tarakan city
South Borneo – South Kalimantan
South Kalimantan Province is located in Kalimantan Island. South Kalimantan is a province of Indonesia. It is one of four Indonesian provinces in Kalimantan – the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. The provincial capital is Banjarmasin. The province has a population of 2.97 million (2000 census).
There are 11 regencies in South Kalimantan: Banjar, Tanah Bumbu, Kotabaru, Tanah Laut, Barito Kuala, Tapin, Hulu Sungai Selatan, Hulu Sungai Tengah, Hulu Sungai Utara, Balangan, and Tabalong. This province has an administrative city, Banjarbaru.
Banjarmasin city is the capital of South Kalimantan have face in five dimensions that is; Government Town, Port Town, Commerce Town, Industrial Town and Tourism town. This town is located in tip of south as the gateway of South Kalimantan, occupy lowland which swamps, and stay between 3150 – 3220 south latitudes and between 114 320 – 114 380 east longitudes.
Riparian life is initial individuality from the growth of this town with it river transportation, beside its land transportation that starting rapidly grow.
The existence of Flora and Fauna in swamps lowland along the length of the river flowing downstream to go upstream and ridge life is a journey corridor of tourism preoccupying.
Floating Market, which is the only one in Indonesia and other world, is unique culture value.
Banjarmasin city, as Tourism town, has big enough potency. National tourism is pledge sector in the economic activity, to enlarge foreign exchange, to extend and smooth down opportunity to try and employment, push development of area, introduce nature and cultural and to have fatherland love.
Source : Indonesia Tourism Board, Indonesia – Travel